The Indonesian National Army (TNI) was born in the arena of the Indonesian struggle to maintain independence from the threat of Dutch ambition to colonize Indonesia again through armed violence. TNI is an organizational development that originated from Badan Keamanan Rakyat (BKR). Subsequently on 5 October 1945 became the People's Security Army (TKR), and to improve the order in accordance with the international military base, transformed into the Army of the Republic of Indonesia (TRI).
In subsequent developments the government's efforts to perfect the national army continued, while fighting and fighting for the sovereignty of the nation's sovereignty and independence. To unite the two armed forces of TRI as regular soldiers and people's struggle bodies, on June 3, 1947, the President authorized the establishment of the Indonesian National Army (TNI).
At critical moments during the War of Independence (1945-1949), the TNI managed to manifest itself as a people's army, a revolutionary army, and a national army. As a newborn power, in addition to TNI organizing itself, at the same time must also face various challenges, both from within and from abroad. From within the country, the TNI faces both political dimensions and military dimensions. Rongrongan politics is sourced from the communist groups who want to put TNI under their influence through â € œPepolit, Bureau of Struggle, and TNI-Society :. While the challenges from within the military-dimensional country of the TNI face armed upheaval in some areas and the PKI rebellion in Madiun and Darul Islam (DI) in West Java that can threaten national integrity. The challenge from abroad is that the TNI twice faces Dutch Military Aggression which has more modern organization and weaponry.
Aware of the limitations of the TNI in the face of Dutch aggression, the nation of Indonesia implemented the Universal People's War where all the forces of the TNI and the community and national resources were mobilized to face the aggression. Thus, the integrity and existence of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia has been maintained by the TNI forces with the people.
In accordance with the decision of the Round Table Conference (KMB), at the end of 1949 formed the United States of Indonesia (RIS). In line with that, also formed RIS Armed Forces (APRIS) which is a combination of TNI and KNIL with TNI as its core. In August 1950 the RIS was dissolved and Indonesia returned to the form of a unitary State. APRIS was renamed the Indonesian Armed Forces (APRI).
The parliamentary democracy system adopted by the government in the period 1950-1959, affected the life of the TNI. The politician's deep interference with the internal problems of the TNI prompted the October 17, 1952 incident, which resulted in a rift within the army. On the other hand, the intervention prompted the TNI to engage in political activities by establishing a political party namely the Indonesian Communist Supporters Association (IP-KI) who participated as a contestant in the 1955 General Election.
The period also called the Period of Liberal Democracy is also characterized by various internal insurgencies. In 1950 some former members of KNIL launched a rebellion in Bandung (rebellion of Ratu Adil / APRA), in Makassar Andi Azis rebellion, and in Maluku South Maluku rebellion (RMS). Meanwhile, DI TII West Java widened its influence to South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and Aceh. In 1958 the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia / the People's Struggle (PRRI / Permesta) committed rebellions in much of Sumatra and North Sulawesi, endangering national integrity. All these rebellions can be crushed by the TNI with the power of other components of the nation.
The effort to unify the armed forces and the State Police into the Armed Forces of Indonesian Republika (ABRI) in 1962 was an important part of TNI history in the decade of the sixties.
The unification of the forces of the Armed Forces under one command, is expected to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in performing its role, and not easily influenced by the interests of certain political groups. However, it faced various challenges, especially from the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) as part of international communism, which constantly strives to instill its influence into the life of the Indonesian people, including within the body of ABRI through infiltration and special formation, and utilizing the influence of the President / Supreme Commander ABRI for its political interests.
The PKI's efforts intensified and culminated in a coup against the legitimate government by the G30S / PKI, causing the Indonesian nation to be in a very critical situation. Under these conditions the TNI managed to overcome the critical situation to thwart the coup and menus